Bosnia and Herzegovina

Information for Patients
Bosnia and Herzegovina healthcare system has not fully recovered from the 1992-1995 civil war’s dire consequences. A pre-war centralized system was replaced by a decentralized system of 10 different ‘cantons’, each with its own administrators, and governance. The Federal Health Insurance Fund covers most of the costs for residents’ hospital visits, with residents requiring to pay a portion themselves. The contributions for this fund are made by government (54%), employers/employees (30%) and farmers (16%). 

The four types of public hospitals are clinical centers, general acute hospitals, specialized hospitals and small district hospitals. In addition, private hospitals are available for those residents who can afford out-of-pocket payments or who have private medical insurance. Patients are willing to make unofficial and illegal payments to doctors for immediate attention.

Information for Health Care Professionals
A shortage of medical professionals exists in Bosnia and Herzegovina, as thousands fled during the war, and are continuing to leave for higher salaries, mostly to Germany. The medical professionals that remain suffer lack of training, and low salaries. Doctors who have passed the national exam may begin their 3-year residency program, and upon completion, will undergo an oral exam and the defense/discussion of a specialty thesis. 

Information for Travelers 
Bosnia and Herzegovina is sending an increasing amount of patients outside of the country, as dwindling health services plague the county due to ongoing staff shortages. It is important for travelers to have access to emergency funds to cover these types of costs, as well as comprehensive travel health insurance. Travelers can also expect to pay upfront, despite having travel insurance.

Link to the Ministry of Health: